Example of a cross-quarter timeA resource…  / Wheel of the Year Dates  / The Traditional (Solar) Seasons

The living tradition we share in Unitarian Universalism draws from many sources, one of which is the “spiritual teachings of earth-centered traditions which celebrate the sacred circle of life and instruct us to live in harmony with the rhythms of nature.” The Wheel of the Year (WOY) reflects earth-centered traditions that connect to the cycles of the Earth’s annual dance around the sun. Through connection to that cycle one can connect to the cycles of our own lives as well as connect to life, community, the world, the ancestors and the generations to come. The eight special points in the year that we honor are the solstices, the equinoxes and the 4 cross-quarter days in between. For a number of years the WOY group offered 6 to 8 UU public events per year where we gathered together to celebrate and honor these special points along the Wheel of the Year. We honored the wisdom of different cultures and traditions as we crafted our own forms of ceremony and ritual. We gained insight into the natural cycles, the seasons and their connections to our daily lives. We expressed our gratitude for the life giving energy provided by the Sun. The points along the Wheel are times to connect to our ancestors who experienced the same patterns of sunlight. They are also times to connect to future generations who will be experiencing the same solar cycles that we do today. In the past year we offered a single public event for Yule (the Winter Solstice). To encourage people to connect to the Wheel of the Year on their own or in small groups, we are currently posting articles about the Wheel of the Year on the announcement email distribution list ( So as each solstice, equinox or cross-quarter day approaches watch for such an email put together by Cliff Pereira and Gaylee Goodrich. There are few guarantees in life, but a very positive one is the wonderful cycle of light and dark provided by the interaction of our Mother Earth with our Father Sun.


An Example of a Cross-Quarter Time: Early February in the Willamette Valley 

Take some time in early February to honor this special point in Mother Earth’s annual dance around the sun. This is a time to celebrate the returning light, because we have come to the end of the three months of greatest darkness. The solar winter that began in early November (Samhain) and was centered on the Winter Solstice (Yule, Midwinter), now ends in early February.  Patricia Montley, in her book In Nature’s Honor, writes: “Although in the United States we think of spring as beginning in March at the time of the Vernal Equinox, this is largely a twentieth-century American shift. In many other places and in earlier times, spring was welcomed at the start of February”. So one could say, in terms of the traditional seasons based on light, early February is the beginning of the solar spring.

The days are noticeably growing longer, so take a walk and observe that: the first small bulbs like snowdrops and crocus are blooming; Indian Plum is the first native shrub to soon bloom in the forest; the green shoots of daffodils are growing taller; lambs are being born; each day the sun rises earlier and sets later; you can plant snap peas like, my favorite, Oregon Sugar Pod II.  Here in the Willamette Valley we can look forward to a long spring with an extended parade of blooms starting now and reaching their crescendo in the summer blooms of roses and dahlias. The long parade has begun.

This is a time associated with a number of themes in this time of waxing light as seeds of creativity are now stirring within us. One theme is purifying or cleansing: What needs to be cleansed or swept out in your life to allow the new creative seeds in your life to grow? Another theme is patience: The increasing light provides the promise of Spring, but we must be patient for the warmth of Spring that naturally lags behind the increasing light. So, too, should we be patient and gentle to allow our creative seeds to unfold naturally without being forced.

This “cross-quarter” day half-way between the Winter Solstice and the Spring Equinox (about February 2nd or so) has many names. One Celtic name for this time is “Imbolc” which many think refers to sheep’s milk. Another name is “Brigid” for the mother goddess of Ireland. The Celtic goddess of fire, poetry, healing, childbirth and healing is celebrated in many European countries.

Happy Imbolc!  Happy Brigid’s Day!


A Resource:  In Nature’s Honor


In Nature’s Honor: Myths and Rituals Celebrating the Earth by Patricia Montley (Skinner House Books, Unitarian Univeralist Association, 2005).

Quoting from pages 345-346: “How different the condition of the planet might be if we allowed ourselves to be renewed at each turning of the wheel of the year, if we took the time to periodically celebrate the beauty and bounty of nature.

Celebrating the renewal of the earth gives us an opportunity to become new ourselves – to let go of old hurts and failures, to forgive ourselves and others, to get on with life as nature does, to open ourselves to hope and possibilities, to welcome the fertility of spirit that gives life its richness.

And because we all share the same earth [and the same sun], we can celebrate the renewal together….Recognizing our mutual bond with the earth [and sun] can strengthen our bonds with one another and put into perspective the things that separate us….

The ground we stand on is holy — and it is our common ground.”



Wheel of the Year Dates in 2018 and 2019 on the Pacific Coast of North America


Date                                      Some names for the time                            Traditional Seasons (explained below)

Early February                   Imbolc / Brigid                                                   End of Winter, beginning of Spring

March 20                             Spring Equinox / Ostara                                  Mid Spring

Early May                            Beltane                                                                 End of Spring, beginning of Summer

June 21                                Summer Solstice / Litha                                  Mid Summer

Early August                       Lammas / Lugnasadh                                       End of Summer, beginning of Fall

September 22 (2018)        Fall Equinox / Mabon                                       Mid Fall
September 23 (2019)

Early November                 Samhain                                                               End of Fall, beginning of Winter

December 21                      Winter Solstice / Yule                                       Mid Winter



The Traditional (Solar) Seasons.

Click here to see a graphical representation

The modern astronomical seasons that begin on the solstices and equinoxes were not the traditional seasons of many people in the past.  For example, traditionally Midsummer celebrations throughout Northern Europe happen around the Summer Solstice. The Summer Solstice would then mark the middle, rather than the beginning, of summer. This traditional perspective is based on the energy coming from the sun which changes during the year due to the Earth’s tilt and its movement around the sun. The traditional or solar seasons are based on the cycle of light and dark which had great importance for people when gathering food and fuel could largely only happen in the daylight hours. Because they could not do as we do today and simply flip a switch to bring light into our lives, the ancients needed to be much more aware of the cycle of light and dark.

SOMETHING GOOD THAT WE CAN COUNT ON. The awareness of the cycles of light and dark can be very grounding, partly because they are unchanging. Although many things, including the weather, are somewhat different every season, the cycle of light and dark is the same every year.

CONNECTS US TO OUR ANCESTORS AND GENERATIONS TO COME. The annual cycle of light and dark that we experience is very much that same as that experienced by our ancestors. Our children and many more generations to come will also experience essentially the same cycle.

SOMETHING WE SHARE ACROSS THE WORLD. The timing and general pattern follows the same pattern everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. The primary difference is the greater extremes of day-length through each year as you move farther from the equator.

LIGHT BEFORE WARMTH. As the light returns after the winter solstice, it takes time for the earth and its waters to warm, so that there is a delay in the increases in the average temperature. This is called the seasonal lag and it is an example of thermal lag. So each year after the winter solstice there is a promise of coming warmth, but we have to be patient.

The “cross-quarter days” that are halfway between solstices and equinoxes were the beginnings and endings of the traditional seasons because they divided the year into 4 meaningful periods with respect to the amount of daylight that we experience in the Northern Hemisphere.

SOLAR WINTER Samhain (early Nov.) to Imbolc/Brigid (early Feb.): The 3 months of least daylight. The middle of this period is the Winter Solstice (Yule, Midwinter) when the day length is shortest. At Yule the change in day length has slowed to zero and it reverses. The light begins to return as day lengths start to get longer.

SOLAR SPRING  Imbolc/Brigid to Beltane (early May):  3 months that are roughly half day & half night, moving toward increasing daylight. The middle of this period is the Spring Equinox (Ostara) when about half of the 24 hour day is daylight and half is night (Balance). At the equinox the change in day length is the fastest. From that point on the change in day length will begin to slow, as we move toward the longest day.

SOLAR SUMMER  Beltane to Lammas (early Aug.): 3 months of greatest daylight. The middle of this period is the summer solstice (midsummer, Litha) when the days are longest. At the summer solstice the change in day length has slowed to zero and it reverses.  After that the day length will begin to get shorter each day.

SOLAR FALL Lammas to Samhain (early Nov.): 3 months that are roughly half day & half night, moving toward decreasing daylight. The middle of this period is the Fall Equinox (Mabon) when about half of the 24 hour day is day time and half is night. At the equinox the change in day length is the fastest. From that point on the change in day length will begin to slow as we move again toward the shortest day.


Posted by:  Cliff Pereira              April 2018